Skip to main content

Value expressions

Value expressions are used in a variety of contexts, such as in the target list of the SELECT command, as new column values in INSERT or UPDATE, or in search conditions in a number of commands. The result of a value expression is sometimes called a scalar, to distinguish it from the result of a table expression (which is a table).

Aggregate expressions

An aggregate expression represents the application of an aggregate function across the rows selected by a query.

The supported syntax of an aggregate expression is in one of the following forms:

aggregate_name (expression [ , ... ] [ order_by_clause ] ) [ FILTER ( WHERE filter_clause ) ]
aggregate_name (DISTINCT expression [ , ... ] [ order_by_clause ] ) [ FILTER ( WHERE filter_clause ) ]
aggregate_name ( * ) [ FILTER ( WHERE filter_clause ) ]
aggregate_name ( [ expression [ , ... ] ] ) WITHIN GROUP ( order_by_clause ) [ FILTER ( WHERE filter_clause ) ]

where aggregate_name is one of the aggregation functions listed on Aggregate functions, and expression is a value expression that does not contain an aggregate expression or a window function call.

In RisingWave, the DISTINCT keyword, which is only available in the second form, cannot be used in conjunction with an ORDER BY or WITHIN GROUP clause. Additionally, it's important to note that the order_by_clause is positioned differently in the first and fourth forms.

Row constructors

A row constructor is an expression that builds a row value using values from its member fields.



The following two statements create a table and add values to the table.

CREATE TABLE t (v1 int, v2 int);
INSERT INTO t VALUES (1,12), (2,13), (3,30);

The row constructor in the statement below returns all rows in table t in the form of row values (,).

SELECT row (v1, v2*2) AS demo FROM t;
(3 rows)

Array constructors

An array constructor is an expression that creates an array from a group of values.

An array can be construcuted with the following syntax.

ARRAY [expression1, expression2, ...]

For example:

SELECT ARRAY[1, 2, 3*4];
(1 row)

An array constructor can be nested in another array constructor. For example:

(1 row)

For a nested array constructor, ARRAY cannot be omitted. The following statement cannot be parsed.

SELECT ARRAY[[1,2], [3,4]];

When you create a table, define an array with square brackets. For example:

CREATE TABLE (f1 INT[], f2 INT[]);


Help us make this doc better!

Was this page helpful?

Happy React is loading...