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Overview of data ingestion

RisingWave can ingest data from message queues, databases, and storage systems like AWS S3. As an SQL database, it also supports directly adding data rows with the INSERT command.

Please be aware that since RisingWave is a streaming database, it excels at ingesting and processing streaming data. Direct data insertion is meant to be used as a supplementary method, mainly for data corrections and infrequent bulk imports.

Ingest data from external sources

To ingest data from external sources into RisingWave, you need to create a source (CREATE SOURCE) or a table with connector settings (CREATE TABLE) in RisingWave.

What's the difference between a table and a source?
The table below shows the main differences between a table and a source in RisingWave.

Data is persisted in RisingWaveyesno
Primary keys can be definedyesno
Append-only datayesyes
Upsert datayes, but a primary key needs to be definedno

As shown above, a key distinction between the two is that a table persists the ingested raw data, whereas a source does not. For example, let's consider the upstream input of 5 records: `AA`, `BB`, `CC`, `DD`, and `EE`. If a table is used, these 5 records will be persisted in RisingWave. However, if a source is used, these records will not be persisted.

One advantage of using a table is that you can performa ad-hoc queries against the ingested raw data.

Another advantage of using a table is the ability to consume data changes. If the upstream system deletes or updates a record, this operation will be consumed by RisingWave, thereby modifying the results of the stream computation. On the other hand, a source only supports appending records and cannot handle data changes. Besides, to allow a table to accept data changes, a primary key must be specified on the table.

Apart from the above differences, here are a few points worth noting about a table:

  • With a CREATE TABLE statement, the corresponding table will be immediately created and populated with data.
  • When a materialized view is defined based on the existing table, RisingWave will start reading data from the table and perform streaming computation.
  • RisingWave's batch processing engine supports direct batch reading of the table. Users can issue ad-hoc queries against the data within the table.

And here are the points worth noting about a source:

  • With a CREATE SOURCE statement, no physical objects are created, and data is not immediately read from the source.
  • Data from the source is only read when a user creates materialized views or sinks on that source.

Regardless of whether data is persisted in RisingWave, you can create materialized views to transform or analyze them.

Supported source types

A source is a connection to an external system that RisingWave can read data from. RisingWave supports these types of sources:

  • Event streaming systems such as Apache Kafka, Apache Pulsar, AWS Kinesis
  • Change data capture streams from databases such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MongoDB
  • Storage systems such as AWS S3 or S3-compatible systems

To ingest data from these sources, you need to create a source or table and specify the connector settings in the CREATE SOURCE or CREATE TABLE statements.

Insert data into tables (without connectors)

You can load data in batch to RisingWave by creating a table (CREATE TABLE) and then inserting data into it (INSERT). For example, the statement below creates a table website_visits and inserts 5 rows of data.

CREATE TABLE website_visits (
timestamp timestamp with time zone,
user_id varchar,
page_id varchar,
action varchar

INSERT INTO website_visits (timestamp, user_id, page_id, action) VALUES
('2023-06-13T10:00:00Z', 'user1', 'page1', 'view'),
('2023-06-13T10:01:00Z', 'user2', 'page2', 'view'),
('2023-06-13T10:02:00Z', 'user3', 'page3', 'view'),
('2023-06-13T10:03:00Z', 'user4', 'page1', 'view'),
('2023-06-13T10:04:00Z', 'user5', 'page2', 'view');

Topics in this section

The information presented above provides a brief overview of the data ingestion process in RisingWave. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of this process, the following topics in this section will delve deeper into the subject matter. Here is a brief introduction to what you can expect to find in each topic:

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