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Ingest data from PostgreSQL CDC

Change Data Capture (CDC) refers to the process of identifying and capturing data changes in a database, and then delivering the changes to a downstream service in real time.

RisingWave supports ingesting CDC data from PostgreSQL. Versions 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 of PostgreSQL are supported.

You can ingest CDC data from PostgreSQL into RisingWave in two ways:

  • Using the built-in PostgreSQL CDC connector

    With this connector, RisingWave can connect to PostgreSQL databases directly to obtain data from the binlog without starting additional services.

    Beta feature

    The built-in PostgreSQL CDC connector in RisingWave is currently in Beta. Please contact us if you encounter any issues or have feedback.

  • Using a CDC tool and a message broker

    You can use a CDC tool and then use the Kafka, Pulsar, or Kinesis connector to send the CDC data to RisingWave. For more details, see the Create source via event streaming systems topic.

Set up PostgreSQL

  1. Ensure that wal_level is logical. Check by using the following statement.

    SHOW wal_level;

    By default, it is replica. For CDC, you will need to set it to logical in the database configuration file (postgresql.conf) or via a psql command. The following command will change the wal_level.

    ALTER SYSTEM SET wal_level = logical;

    Keep in mind that changing the wal_level requires a restart of the PostgreSQL instance and can affect database performance.

    note

    If you choose to create multiple CDC tables without using a shared source, be sure to set max_wal_senders to be greater than or equal to the number of synced tables. By default, max_wal_senders is 10.

  2. Assign REPLICATION, LOGIN,and CREATEDB role attributes to the user.

    For an existing user, run the following statement to assign the attributes:

    ALTER USER <username> REPLICATION LOGIN CREATEDB;

    For a new user, run the following statement to create the user and assign the attributes:

    CREATE USER <username> REPLICATION LOGIN CREATEDB;

    You can check your role attributes by using the \du psql command:

    dev-# \du
    List of roles
    Role name | Attributes | Member of
    -----------+-----------------------------------------------------------+---------
    rw | Create DB, Replication | {}
    postgres | Superuser, Create role, Create DB, Replication, Bypass RLS | {}
  3. Grant required privileges to the user.

    Run the following statements to grant the required privileges to the user.

    GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE <database_name> TO <username>;   
    GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <username>;
    GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA <schema_name> TO <username>;
    GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE <database_name> TO <username>;

    You can use the following statement to check the privileges of the user to the tables:

    postgres=# SELECT table_name, grantee, privilege_type
    FROM information_schema.role_table_grants
    WHERE grantee='<username>';

    An example result:

     table_name | grantee | privilege_type
    -----------+---------+----------------
    lineitem | rw | SELECT
    customer | rw | SELECT
    nation | rw | SELECT
    orders | rw | SELECT
    part | rw | SELECT
    partsupp | rw | SELECT
    supplier | rw | SELECT
    region | rw | SELECT
    (8 rows)

Notes about running RisingWave from binaries

If you are running RisingWave locally from binaries and intend to use the native CDC source connectors or the JDBC sink connector, make sure that you have JDK 11 or a later version installed in your environment.

Create a table using the native CDC connector

To ensure all data changes are captured, you must create a table or source and specify primary keys. See the CREATE TABLE command for more details.

Syntax

Syntax for creating a CDC table. Note that a primary key is required.

CREATE TABLE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] table_name (
column_name data_type PRIMARY KEY , ...
PRIMARY KEY ( column_name, ... )
)
WITH (
connector='postgres-cdc',
connector_parameter='value', ...
)
[ FORMAT DEBEZIUM ENCODE JSON ];

Syntax for creating a CDC source.

CREATE SOURCE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] source_name WITH (
connector='postgres-cdc',
<field>=<value>, ...
);

Connector parameters

Unless specified otherwise, the fields listed are required. Note that the value of these parameters should be enclosed in single quotation marks.

FieldNotes
hostnameHostname of the database.
portPort number of the database.
usernameUsername of the database.
passwordPassword of the database.
database.nameName of the database.
schema.nameOptional. Name of the schema. By default, the value is public.
table.nameName of the table that you want to ingest data from.
slot.nameOptional. The replication slot for this PostgreSQL source. By default, a unique slot name will be randomly generated. Each source should have a unique slot name.
publication.nameOptional. Name of the publication. By default, the value is rw_publication. For more information, see Multiple CDC source tables.
publication.create.enableOptional. By default, the value is 'true'. If publication.name does not exist and this value is 'true', a publication.name will be created. If publication.name does not exist and this value is 'false', an error will be returned.
transactionalOptional. Specify whether you want to enable transactions for the CDC table that you are about to create. By default, the value is 'true' for shared sources, and 'false' otherwise. This feature is also supported for shared CDC sources for multi-table transactions. For details, see Transaction within a CDC table.
snapshotOptional. If false, CDC backfill will be disabled and only upstream events that have occurred after the creation of the table will be consumed. This option can only be applied for tables created from a shared source.
note

RisingWave implements CDC via PostgreSQL replication. Inspect the current progress via the pg_replication_slots view. Remove inactive replication slots via pg_drop_replication_slot(). RisingWave does not automatically drop inactive replication slots. You must do this manually to prevent WAL files from accumulating in the upstream PostgreSQL database.

Debezium parameters

Debezium v2.4 connector configuration properties can also be specified under the WITH clause when creating a table or shared source. Add the prefix debezium. to the connector property you want to include.

For instance, to skip unknown DDL statements, specify the schema.history.internal.skip.unparseable.ddl parameter as debezium.schema.history.internal.skip.unparseable.ddl.

CREATE SOURCE pg_mydb WITH (
connector = 'postgres-cdc',
hostname = '127.0.0.1',
port = '8306',
username = 'root',
password = '123456',
database.name = 'mydb',
slot.name = 'mydb_slot',
debezium.schema.history.internal.skip.unparseable.ddl = 'true'
);

Data format

Data is in Debezium JSON format. Debezium is a log-based CDC tool that can capture row changes from various database management systems such as PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQL Server and generate events with consistent structures in real time. The PostgreSQL CDC connector in RisingWave supports JSON as the serialization format for Debezium data. The data format does not need to be specified when creating a table with postgres-cdc as the source.

Examples

Create a single CDC table

The following example creates a table in RisingWave that reads CDC data from the shipments table in PostgreSQL. The shipments table is located in the public schema, under the dev database. When connecting to a specific table in PostgreSQL, use the CREATE TABLE command.

 CREATE TABLE shipments (
shipment_id integer,
order_id integer,
origin string,
destination string,
is_arrived boolean,
PRIMARY KEY (shipment_id)
) WITH (
connector = 'postgres-cdc',
hostname = '127.0.0.1',
port = '5432',
username = 'postgres',
password = 'postgres',
database.name = 'dev',
schema.name = 'public',
table.name = 'shipments'
);

Create multiple CDC tables with the same source

RisingWave supports creating a single PostgreSQL source that allows you to read CDC data from multiple tables located in the same database.

Connect to the upstream database by creating a CDC source using the CREATE SOURCE command and PostgreSQL CDC parameters. The data format is fixed as FORMAT PLAIN ENCODE JSON so it does not need to be specified.

CREATE SOURCE pg_mydb WITH (
connector = 'postgres-cdc',
hostname = '127.0.0.1',
port = '8306',
username = 'root',
password = '123456',
database.name = 'mydb',
slot.name = 'mydb_slot'
);

With the source created, you can create multiple CDC tables that ingest data from different tables and schemas in the upstream database without needing to specify the database connection parameters again.

For instance, the following CDC table in RisingWave ingests data from table tt3 in the schema public. When specifying the PostgreSQL table name in the FROM clause after the keyword TABLE, the schema name must also be specified.

CREATE TABLE tt3 (
v1 integer primary key,
v2 timestamp with time zone
) FROM pg_mydb TABLE 'public.tt3';

You can create another CDC table in RisingWave that ingests data from table tt4 in the schema ods.

CREATE TABLE tt4 (
v1 integer primary key,
v2 varchar,
PRIMARY KEY (v1)
) FROM pg_mydb TABLE 'ods.tt4';

To check the progress of backfilling historical data, find the corresponding internal table using the SHOW INTERNAL TABLES command and query from it.

Data type mapping

The following table shows the corresponding data type in RisingWave that should be specified when creating a source. For details on native RisingWave data types, see Overview of data types.

RisingWave data types marked with an asterisk indicate that while there is no corresponding RisingWave data type, the ingested data can still be consumed as the listed type.

note

RisingWave cannot correctly parse composite types from PostgreSQL as Debezium does not support composite types in PostgreSQL.

PostgreSQL typeRisingWave type
BOOLEANBOOLEAN
BIT(1)BOOLEAN
BIT( > 1)No support
BIT VARYING[(M)]No support
SMALLINT, SMALLSERIALSMALLINT
INTEGER, SERIALINTEGER
BIGINT, BIGSERIAL, OIDBIGINT
REALREAL
DOUBLE PRECISIONDOUBLE PRECISION
CHAR[(M)]CHARACTER VARYING
VARCHAR[(M)]CHARACTER VARYING
CHARACTER[(M)]CHARACTER VARYING
CHARACTER VARYING[(M)]CHARACTER VARYING
TIMESTAMPTZ, TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONETIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE
TIMETZ, TIME WITH TIME ZONETIME WITHOUT TIME ZONE (assume UTC time zone)
INTERVAL [P]INTERVAL
BYTEABYTEA
JSON, JSONBJSONB
XMLCHARACTER VARYING
UUIDCHARACTER VARYING
POINTSTRUCT (with form <x REAL, y REAL>)
LTREENo support
CITEXTCHARACTER VARYING*
INETCHARACTER VARYING*
INT4RANGECHARACTER VARYING*
INT8RANGECHARACTER VARYING*
NUMRANGECHARACTER VARYING*
TSRANGECHARACTER VARYING*
TSTZRANGECHARACTER VARYING*
DATERANGECHARACTER VARYING*
ENUMCHARACTER VARYING*
DATEDATE
TIME(1), TIME(2), TIME(3), TIME(4), TIME(5), TIME(6)TIME WITHOUT TIME ZONE (limited to [1973-03-03 09:46:40, 5138-11-16 09:46:40))
TIMESTAMP(1), TIMESTAMP(2), TIMESTAMP(3)TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE (limited to [1973-03-03 09:46:40, 5138-11-16 09:46:40))
TIMESTAMP(4), TIMESTAMP(5), TIMESTAMP(6), TIMESTAMPTIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE
NUMERIC[(M[,D])]NUMERIC
DECIMAL[(M[,D])]NUMERIC
MONEY[(M[,D])]NUMERIC
HSTORENo support
HSTORENo support
INETCHARACTER VARYING*
CIDRCHARACTER VARYING*
MACADDRCHARACTER VARYING*
MACADDR8CHARACTER VARYING*
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